“单光子探测器阵列”相关最新SCI收录(1)
时间: 2015-09-25   来源:   作者:   点击: 100
第 1 条,共 35 条
标题: A compact high resolution flat panel PET detector based on the new 4-side buttable MPPC for biomedical applications
作者: Wang, Q (Wang, Qiang); Wen, J (Wen, Jie); Ravindranath, B (Ravindranath, Bosky); O'Sullivan, AW (O'Sullivan, Andrew W.); Catherall, D (Catherall, David); Li, K (Li, Ke); Wei, SY (Wei, Shouyi); Komarov, S (Komarov, Sergey); Tai, YC (Tai, Yuan-Chuan)
来源出版物: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT  卷: 794  页: 151-159  DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2015.04.071  出版年: SEP 11 2015  
摘要: Compact high-resolution panel detectors using virtual pinhole (VP) PET geometry can be inserted into existing clinical or pre-clinical PET systems to improve regional spatial resolution and sensitivity. Here we describe a compact panel PET detector built using the new Though Silicon Via (TSV) multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) detector. This insert provides high spatial resolution and good timing performance for multiple bio-medical applications. Because the TSV MPPC design eliminates wire bonding and has a package dimension which is very close to the MPPC's active area, it is 4-side buttable. The custom designed MPPC array (based on Hamamatsu S12641-PA-50(x)) used in the prototype is composed of 4 x 4 TSV-MPPC cells with a 4.46 mm pitch in both directions. The detector module has 16 x 16 lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystal array, with each crystal measuring 0.92 x 0.92 x 3 mm(3) with 1.0 mm pitch. The outer diameter of the detector block is 16.8 x 16.8 mm(2). Thirty-two such blocks will be arranged in a 4 x 8 array with 1 mm gaps to form a panel detector with detection area around 7 cm x 14 cm in the full-size detector. The flood histogram acquired with Ge-68 source showed excellent crystal separation capability with all 256 crystals clearly resolved. The detector module's mean, standard deviation, minimum (best) and maximum (worst) energy resolution were 10.19%, +/- 0.68%, 8.36% and 13A5% FWHM, respectively. The measured coincidence time resolution between the block detector and a fast reference detector (around 200 ps single photon timing resolution) was 0.95 ns. When tested with Siemens Cardinal electronics the performance of the detector blocks remain consistent. These results demonstrate that the TSV-MPPC is a promising photon sensor for use in a flat panel PET insert composed of many high resolution compact detector modules. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
入藏号: WOS:000356356100020
地址: [Wang, Qiang; Wen, Jie; Ravindranath, Bosky; O'Sullivan, Andrew W.; Li, Ke; Wei, Shouyi; Komarov, Sergey; Tai, Yuan-Chuan] Washington Univ, St Louis, MO 63110 USA. 
[Catherall, David] St Louis Univ, St Louis, MO 63103 USA.
通讯作者地址: Wang, Q (通讯作者),Washington Univ, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.
电子邮件地址: wangqiang@mir.wustl.edu; taiy@mir.wustl.edu
ISSN: 0168-9002
eISSN: 1872-9576

第 2 条,共 35 条
标题: Time-based position estimation in monolithic scintillator detectors
作者: Tabacchini, V (Tabacchini, Valerio); Borghi, G (Borghi, Giacomo); Schaart, DR (Schaart, Dennis R.)
来源出版物: PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY  卷: 60  期: 14  页: 5513-5525  DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/60/14/5513  出版年: JUL 21 2015  
摘要: Gamma-ray detectors based on bright monolithic scintillation crystals coupled to pixelated photodetectors are currently being considered for several applications in the medical imaging field. In a typical monolithic detector, both the light intensity and the time of arrival of the earliest scintillation photons can be recorded by each of the photosensor pixels every time a gamma interaction occurs. Generally, the time stamps are used to determine the gamma interaction time while the light intensities are used to estimate the 3D position of the interaction point. In this work we show that the spatio-temporal distribution of the time stamps also carries information on the location of the gamma interaction point and thus the time stamps can be used as explanatory variables for position estimation. We present a model for the spatial resolution obtainable when the interaction position is estimated using exclusively the time stamp of the first photon detected on each of the photosensor pixels. The model is shown to be in agreement with experimental measurements on a 16 mm x 16 mm x 10 mm LSO:Ce, 0.2% Ca crystal coupled to a digital photon counter (DPC) array where a spatial resolution of 3 mm (root mean squared error) is obtained. Finally we discuss the effects of the main parameters such as scintillator rise and decay time, light output and photosensor single photon time resolution and pixel size.
入藏号: WOS:000357620400012
地址: [Tabacchini, Valerio; Borghi, Giacomo; Schaart, Dennis R.] Delft Univ Technol, NL-2629 JB Delft, Netherlands.
通讯作者地址: Tabacchini, V (通讯作者),Delft Univ Technol, Mekelweg 15, NL-2629 JB Delft, Netherlands.
电子邮件地址: v.tabacchini@tudelft.nl
ISSN: 0031-9155
eISSN: 1361-6560

第 3 条,共 35 条
标题: Micro-channel plate photon detector studies for the TORCH detector
作者: Garcia, LC (Garcia, L. Castillo); Brook, N (Brook, N.); Cowie, EN (Cowie, E. N.); Cussans, D (Cussans, D.); Forty, R (Forty, R.); Frei, C (Frei, C.); Gao, R (Gao, R.); Gys, T (Gys, T.); Harnew, N (Harnew, N.); Piedigrossi, D (Piedigrossi, D.); Van Dijk, M (Van Dijk, M.)
来源出版物: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT  卷: 787  页: 197-202  DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2014.11.104  出版年: JUL 1 2015  
摘要: The Time Of internally Reflected Cherenkov light (TORCH) detector is under development. Charged particle tracks passing through a 1 cm plate of quartz will generate the Cherenkov photons, and their arrival will be timed by an array of micro-channel plate photon detectors. As part of the TORCH R&D studies, commercial and custom-made micro-channel plate detectors are being characterized. The final photon detectors for this application are being produced in a three-phase program in collaboration with industry. Custom-made single-channel devices with extended lifetime have been manufactured and their performance is being systematically investigated in the laboratory. Optical studies for the preparation of beam and laboratory tests of a TORCH prototype are also underway. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
入藏号: WOS:000354869900045
地址: [Garcia, L. Castillo; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Piedigrossi, D.] CERN, PH Dept, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. 
[Garcia, L. Castillo] Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab High Energy Phys, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. 
[Brook, N.; Cowie, E. N.; Cussans, D.; Van Dijk, M.] Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England. 
[Gao, R.; Harnew, N.] Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 3RH, England.
通讯作者地址: Garcia, LC (通讯作者),CERN, PH Dept, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
电子邮件地址: lucia.castillo.garcia@cern.ch
ISSN: 0168-9002
eISSN: 1872-9576

第 4 条,共 35 条
标题: Characterization of the Hamamatsu MPPC S11834 as photon sensor for RICH
作者: Tahirovic, E (Tahirovic, E.); Korpar, S (Korpar, S.); Krizan, P (Krizan, P.); Pestotnik, R (Pestotnik, R.)
来源出版物: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT  卷: 787  页: 203-206  DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2014.11.117  出版年: JUL 1 2015  
摘要: Recent development of SiPMs makes them a promising candidate for replacement of photomultiplier tubes in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. A commercially available 8 x 8 SiPM array, Hamamatsu MPPC 511834 with a rather low dark count rate, was tested as a single photon sensor in a RICH counter. To increase its overall geometrical acceptance, light concentrators were employed. The various factors that influence their efficiency are estimated and the results of measurements with polarized light are presented, showing a good agreement with a Monte Carlo study. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
入藏号: WOS:000354869900046
地址: [Tahirovic, E.; Korpar, S.; Krizan, P.; Pestotnik, R.] Jozef Stefan Inst, Ljubljana, Slovenia. 
[Korpar, S.] Univ Maribor, Fac Chem & Chem Engn, SLO-2000 Maribor, Slovenia. 
[Krizan, P.] Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
通讯作者地址: Tahirovic, E (通讯作者),Jozef Stefan Inst, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
电子邮件地址: dino.tahirovic@ijs.si
ISSN: 0168-9002
eISSN: 1872-9576

第 5 条,共 35 条
标题: Quality control of the TSV multi-pixel photon counter arrays, and modules for the external plate of EndoTOF-PET ultrasound detector
作者: Liu, Z (Liu, Z.); Doroud, K (Doroud, K.); Auffray, E (Auffray, E.); Hadj, FBMB (Hadj, F. Ben Mimoun Bel); Cortinovis, D (Cortinovis, D.); Garutti, E (Garutti, E.); Lecoq, P (Lecoq, P.); Paganoni, M (Paganoni, M.); Pizzichemi, M (Pizzichemi, M.); Silenzi, A (Silenzi, A.); Xu, C (Xu, C.); Zvolsky, M (Zvolsky, M.)
来源出版物: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT  卷: 787  页: 240-244  DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2014.12.040  出版年: JUL 1 2015  
摘要: The aim of the EndoTOFPET-US collaboration is to develop a multi-modal imaging tool combining ultrasound with time-of-flight positron emission tomography into an endoscopic imaging device. One of the objectives of this scanner is to reach a coincidence time resolution of 200 ps full width at half maximum. The external detector is constructed with 256 matrices of 4 x 4 lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillating crystals, each with a size of 3.5 x 3.5 x 15 mm(3), coupled to 256 Hamamatsu TSV multi-pixel photon counter arrays (S12643-050CN). A full characterisation of these arrays has been performed in order to assure the quality of the arrays prior to the gluing to the crystal matrices. The breakdown voltage, dark count rate and single photon time resolution have been measured both at DESY and CERN. After this characterisation, the crystal matrices were glued to the multi-pixel photon counter arrays. The coincidence time resolution of each module has been measured at CERN using an ultra-fast amplifier-discriminator as the reference readout ASIC. Results of the characterisation of multi-pixel photon counter arrays and the crystal modules are presented here. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
入藏号: WOS:000354869900055
地址: [Liu, Z.; Paganoni, M.; Pizzichemi, M.] Univ Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy. 
[Doroud, K.; Auffray, E.; Hadj, F. Ben Mimoun Bel; Lecoq, P.] European Ctr Nucl Res CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. 
[Cortinovis, D.; Silenzi, A.; Xu, C.; Zvolsky, M.] Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany. 
[Garutti, E.] Univ Hamburg, D-22671 Hamburg, Germany.
通讯作者地址: Liu, Z (通讯作者),Univ Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Sci 3, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
电子邮件地址: Zheng.Liu@cern.ch
ISSN: 0168-9002
eISSN: 1872-9576

第 6 条,共 35 条
标题: Micro-channel plates and vacuum detectors
作者: Gys, T (Gys, T.)
来源出版物: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT  卷: 787  页: 254-260  DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2014.12.044  出版年: JUL 1 2015  
摘要: A micro-channel plate is an array of miniature electron multipliers that are each acting as a continuous dynode chain. The compact channel structure results in high spatial and time resolutions and robustness to magnetic fields. Micro-channel plates have been originally developed for night vision applications and integrated as an amplification element in image intensifiers. These devices show single-photon sensitivity with very low noise and have been used as such for scintillating fiber tracker readout in high-energy physics experiments. Given their very short transit time spread, micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes are also being used in time-of-flight and particle identification detectors. The present paper will cover the history of the micro-channel plate development, basic features, and some of their applications. Emphasis will be put on various new manufacturing processes that have been developed over the last few years, and that result in a significant improvement in terms of efficiency, noise, and lifetime performance. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
入藏号: WOS:000354869900058
地址: CERN, PH Dept, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
通讯作者地址: Gys, T (通讯作者),CERN, PH Dept, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
电子邮件地址: Thierry.Gys@cern.ch
ISSN: 0168-9002
eISSN: 1872-9576

第 7 条,共 35 条
标题: Development and study of picosecond start and trigger detector for high-energy heavy ion experiments
作者: Yurevich, VI (Yurevich, V. I.)
来源出版物: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT  卷: 787  页: 308-311  DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2015.01.006  出版年: JUL 1 2015  
摘要: Two modular Cherenkov detectors based on MCP-PMTs XP85012 are developed for study Au + Au collisions in Future experiments with beams of Nuclotron and collider NICA at JINR, Dubna. The detector arrays register high-energy photons and relativistic charged particles with aim or fast triggering the collisions and generation of start signal with time resolution better then 50 ps for TOE detector. The MC simulation showed the trigger efficiency of 100% for impact parameter range b < 10 fm. The best time resolution for single detector channel sigma(t) approximate to 21 ps was obtained with DRS4 digitizer in TOE measurements with a deuteron beam. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
入藏号: WOS:000354869900069
地址: Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna 141980, Russia.
通讯作者地址: Yurevich, VI (通讯作者),Joint Inst Nucl Res, Joliot Curie 6, Dubna 141980, Russia.
电子邮件地址: yurevich@jinr.ru
ISSN: 0168-9002
eISSN: 1872-9576

第 8 条,共 35 条
标题: High-Fill-Factor 60 x 1 SPAD Array With 60 Subnanosecond Integrated TDCs
作者: Villa, F (Villa, Federica); Lussana, R (Lussana, Rudi); Tamborini, D (Tamborini, Davide); Tosi, A (Tosi, Alberto); Zappa, F (Zappa, Franco)
来源出版物: IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS  卷: 27  期: 12  页: 1261-1264  DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2015.2416192  出版年: JUN 15 2015  
摘要: This letter presents a high-fill-factor 60 x 1 linear array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) and 60 integrated time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The 100-mu m diameter SPAD has high photon detection efficiency (50% at 420 nm), very low dark count rate (2.5 kcps at room temperature), and negligible crosstalk (similar to 0.1% between adjacent pixels). The TDC resolution is 250 ps and its single-shot precision of 200-ps rms is limited just by the quantization noise. Very good linearity (DNL = 5% LSB rms and INL = 30% LSB rms) is achieved because of the sliding scale technique. The overall fill-factor of the array is 52%. This chip is suitable for many advanced spectroscopic applications, since it provides 60 independent single-photon detectors and the corresponding counting and timing electronics within just one integrated circuit.
入藏号: WOS:000354958500005
地址: [Villa, Federica; Lussana, Rudi; Tamborini, Davide; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco] Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
通讯作者地址: Villa, F (通讯作者),Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
电子邮件地址: federica.villa@polimi.it; rudi.lussana@polimi.it; davide.tamborini@polimi.it; alberto.tosi@polimi.it; franco.zappa@polimi.it
ISSN: 1041-1135
eISSN: 1941-0174

第 9 条,共 35 条
标题: Bilocal current densities and mean trajectories in a Young interferometer with two Gaussian slits and two detectors
作者: Withers, LP (Withers, L. P., Jr.); Narducci, FA (Narducci, F. A.)
来源出版物: JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS  卷: 56  期: 6  文献号: 062106  DOI: 10.1063/1.4922466  出版年: JUN 2015  
摘要: The recent single-photon double-slit experiment of Steinberg et al., based on a weak measurement method proposed by Wiseman, showed that, by encoding the photon's transverse momentum behind the slits into its polarization state, the momentum profile can subsequently be measured on average, from a difference of the separated fringe intensities for the two circular polarization components. They then integrated the measured average velocity field, to obtain the average trajectories of the photons enroute to the detector array. In this paper, we propose a modification of their experiment, to demonstrate that the average particle velocities and trajectories change when the mode of detection changes. The proposed experiment replaces a single detector by a pair of detectors with a given spacing between them. The pair of detectors is configured so that it is impossible to distinguish which detector received the particle. The pair of detectors is then analogous to the simple pair of slits, in that it is impossible to distinguish which slit the particle passed through. To establish the paradoxical outcome of the modified experiment, the theory and explicit three-dimensional formulas are developed for the bilocal probability and current densities, and for the average velocity field and trajectories as the particle wavefunction propagates in the volume of space behind the Gaussian slits. Examples of these predicted results are plotted. Implementation details of the proposed experiment are discussed. (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.
入藏号: WOS:000357615900017
地址: [Withers, L. P., Jr.] George Mason Univ, Sch Phys Astron & Computat Sci, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA. 
[Narducci, F. A.] Naval Air Syst Command, Patuxent River, MD 20670 USA.
通讯作者地址: Withers, LP (通讯作者),George Mason Univ, Sch Phys Astron & Computat Sci, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA.
电子邮件地址: lpwithers@mitre.org; francesco.narducci@navy.mil
ISSN: 0022-2488
eISSN: 1089-7658

第 10 条,共 35 条
标题: ToF Performance Evaluation of PET Modules With Digital Silicon Photomultiplier Technology During MR Operation
作者: Schug, D (Schug, David); Wehner, J (Wehner, Jakob); Dueppenbecker, PM (Dueppenbecker, Peter Michael); Weissler, B (Weissler, Bjoern); Gebhardt, P (Gebhardt, Pierre); Goldschmidt, B (Goldschmidt, Benjamin); Solf, T (Solf, Torsten); Kiessling, F (Kiessling, Fabian); Schulz, V (Schulz, Volkmar)
来源出版物: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE  卷: 62  期: 3  页: 658-663  DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2015.2396295  子辑: 1  出版年: JUN 2015  
摘要: In 2012, we presented the Hyperion-IID preclinical PET insert which uses Philips Digital Photon Counting's digital SiPMs and is designed to be operated in a 3-T MRI. In this work we use the same platform equipped with scintillators having dimensions closer to a clinical application. This allows an investigation of the time of flight (ToF) performance of the platform and its behavior during simultaneous MR operation. We employ LYSO crystal arrays of 4 x 4 x 10 mm(3) coupled to 4 x 4 PDPC DPC 3200-22 sensors (DPC) resulting in a one-to-one coupling of crystals to read-out channels. Six sensor stacks are mounted onto a singles processing unit in a 2 x 3 arrangement. Two modules are mounted horizontally facing each other on a gantry with a crystal-to-crystal spacing of 217.6 mm (gantry position). A second arrangement places the modules at the maximum distance of approximately 410 mm inside the MR bore (maximum distance position) which brings each module close to the gradient system. The DPCs are cooled down to approximately 5-10 degrees C under operation. We disable 20% of the worst cells and use an overvoltage of V-ov = 20 V and 2.5 V. To obtain the best time stamps, we use the trigger scheme 1 (first photon trigger), a narrow energy window of 511 +/- 50 keV and a minimum required light fraction of the main pixel of more than 65% to reject intercrystal scatter. By using a Na-22 point source in the isocenter of the modules, the coincidence resolution time (CRT) of the two modules is evaluated inside the MRI system without MR activity and while using highly demanding gradient sequences. Inside the B-0 field without any MR activity at an overvoltage of V-ov = 2.0 V, the energy resolution is 11.45% (FWHM) and the CRT is 250 ps (FWHM). At an overvoltage of V-ov = 2.5 V, the energy resolution is 11.15% (FWHM) and the CRT is 240 ps (FWHM). During a heavy z-gradient sequence (EPI factor: 49, gradient strength: 30 mT/m, slew rate: 192.3 mT/m/ms, TE/TR: 12/25 ms and switching duty cycle: 67%) at the gantry position and an overvoltage of V-ov = 2.0 V, the energy resolution is degraded relatively by 4.1% and the CRT by 25%. Using the same sequence but at the maximum distance position and an overvoltage of V-ov = 2.5 V, we measure a degradation of the energy resolution of 9.2% and a 52% degradation of the CRT. The Hyperion-II platform proofs to deliver good timing performance and energy resolution inside the MRI system even under highly demanding gradient sequences.
入藏号: WOS:000356456100009
地址: [Schug, David; Wehner, Jakob; Dueppenbecker, Peter Michael; Weissler, Bjoern; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Schulz, Volkmar] Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Expt Mol Imaging, Dept Phys Mol Imaging Syst, D-52074 Aachen, Germany. 
[Dueppenbecker, Peter Michael; Gebhardt, Pierre] Kings Coll London, Div Imaging Sci & Biomed Engn, London WC2R 2LS, England. 
[Weissler, Bjoern; Schulz, Volkmar] Philips Res, Dept Clin Applicat Res, D-52066 Aachen, Germany. 
[Solf, Torsten] Philips Res, Dept Oncol Solut, NL-5656 AE Eindhoven, Netherlands. 
[Kiessling, Fabian] Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Expt Mol Imaging, D-52062 Aachen, Germany.
通讯作者地址: Schug, D (通讯作者),Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Expt Mol Imaging, Dept Phys Mol Imaging Syst, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.
ISSN: 0018-9499
eISSN: 1558-1578

第 11 条,共 35 条
标题: Data Processing for a High Resolution Preclinical PET Detector Based on Philips DPC Digital SiPMs
作者: Schug, D (Schug, David); Wehner, J (Wehner, Jakob); Goldschmidt, B (Goldschmidt, Benjamin); Lerche, C (Lerche, Christoph); Dueppenbecker, PM (Dueppenbecker, Peter Michael); Hallen, P (Hallen, Patrick); Weissler, B (Weissler, Bjoern); Gebhardt, P (Gebhardt, Pierre); Kiessling, F (Kiessling, Fabian); Schulz, V (Schulz, Volkmar)
来源出版物: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE  卷: 62  期: 3  页: 669-678  DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2015.2420578  子辑: 1  出版年: JUN 2015  
摘要: In positron emission tomography (PET) systems, light sharing techniques are commonly used to readout scintillator arrays consisting of scintillation elements, which are smaller than the optical sensors. The scintillating element is then identified evaluating the signal heights in the readout channels using statistical algorithms, the center of gravity (COG) algorithm being the simplest and mostly used one. We propose a COG algorithm with a fixed number of input channels in order to guarantee a stable calculation of the position. The algorithm is implemented and tested with the raw detector data obtained with the Hyperion-II preclinical PET insert which uses Philips Digital Photon Counting's (PDPC) digitial SiPMs. The gamma detectors use LYSO scintillator arrays with 30 x 30 crystals 1 x 1 x 12 mm(3) of mm in size coupled to 4 x 4 PDPC DPC 3200-22 sensors (DPC) via a 2-mm-thick light guide. These self-triggering sensors are made up of 2 x 2 pixels resulting in a total of 64 readout channels. We restrict the COG calculation to a main pixel, which captures most of the scintillation light from a crystal, and its (direct and diagonal) neighboring pixels and reject single events in which this data is not fully available. This results in stable COG positions for a crystal element and enables high spatial image resolution. Due to the sensor layout, for some crystals it is very likely that a single diagonal neighbor pixel is missing as a result of the low light level on the corresponding DPC. This leads to a loss of sensitivity, if these events are rejected. An enhancement of the COG algorithm is proposed which handles the potentially missing pixel separately both for the crystal identification and the energy calculation. Using this advancement, we show that the sensitivity of the Hyperion-IID insert using the described scintillator configuration can be improved by 20-100% for practical useful readout thresholds of a single DPC pixel ranging from 17-52 photons. Furthermore, we show that the energy resolution of the scanner is superior for all readout thresholds if singles with a single missing pixel are accepted and correctly handled compared to the COG method only accepting singles with all neighbors present by 0-1.6% (relative difference). The presented methods can not only be applied to gamma detectors employing DPC sensors, but can be generalized to other similarly structured and self-triggering detectors, using light sharing techniques, as well.
入藏号: WOS:000356456100011
地址: [Schug, David; Wehner, Jakob; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Dueppenbecker, Peter Michael; Hallen, Patrick; Weissler, Bjoern; Gebhardt, Pierre; Schulz, Volkmar] Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Expt Mol Imaging, Dept Phys Mol Imaging Syst, D-52056 Aachen, Germany. 
[Dueppenbecker, Peter Michael; Gebhardt, Pierre] Kings Coll London, Div Imaging Sci & Biomed Engn, London WC2R 2LS, England. 
[Weissler, Bjoern; Schulz, Volkmar] Philips Res, Dept Clin Applicat Res, D-52056 Aachen, Germany. 
[Lerche, Christoph] Philips Res, Dept Oncol Solut, NL-5656 Eindhoven, Netherlands. 
[Kiessling, Fabian] Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Expt Mol Imaging, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
通讯作者地址: Schug, D (通讯作者),Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Expt Mol Imaging, Dept Phys Mol Imaging Syst, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
ISSN: 0018-9499
eISSN: 1558-1578

第 12 条,共 35 条
标题: Implementation Study of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) in 0.8 mu m HV CMOS Technology
作者: Berube, BL (Berube, Benoit-Louis); Rheaume, VP (Rheaume, Vincent-Philippe); Parent, S (Parent, Samuel); Maurais, L (Maurais, Luc); Therrien, AC (Therrien, Audrey Corbeil); Charette, PG (Charette, Paul G.); Charlebois, SA (Charlebois, Serge A.); Fontaine, R (Fontaine, Rejean); Pratte, JF (Pratte, Jean-Francois)
来源出版物: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE  卷: 62  期: 3  页: 710-718  DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2015.2424852  子辑: 1  出版年: JUN 2015  
摘要: Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) are known for their excellent timing performance which enables Time of Flight capabilities in positron emission tomography (PET). However, current array architectures juxtapose the SPAD with its ancillary electronics at the expense of a poor fill factor of the SPAD array. The 3D vertical integration of SPADs and readout electronics represents a solution to the aforementioned problem. Compared to systems with external electronics readout, 3D vertical integration reduces the SPAD interconnect parasitic capacitance while greatly increasing the photosensitive area and improving overall performances. This paper presents the implementation of two SPAD structures designed for PET. The SPAD structures are designed using Teledyne DALSA high voltage (HV) CMOS technology targeted for a 3-dimensional single photon counting module (3DSPCM). SPAD with two types of guard ring (diffusion-based and virtual guard ring) are designed, fabricated and characterized. All structures are based on a p+ anode in an n-well cathode and are implemented along with active quenching circuits for proper characterization. The results show that the contact distribution and the anode-cathode spacing impact the dark count rate (DCR). The design of SPADs with a diffusion guard ring have a DCR down to 3 s(-1) mu m(-2) at room temperature, afterpulsing probability of < 2%, timing resolution of 27 ps FWHM and PDE of 49% at 480 nm.
入藏号: WOS:000356456100017
地址: [Berube, Benoit-Louis; Rheaume, Vincent-Philippe; Parent, Samuel; Maurais, Luc; Therrien, Audrey Corbeil; Charette, Paul G.; Charlebois, Serge A.; Fontaine, Rejean; Pratte, Jean-Francois] Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada.
通讯作者地址: Berube, BL (通讯作者),Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada.
电子邮件地址: Jean-Francois.Pratte@USherbrooke.ca
ISSN: 0018-9499
eISSN: 1558-1578

第 13 条,共 35 条
标题: Dark Count Impact for First Photon Discriminators for SPAD Digital Arrays in PET
作者: Tetrault, MA (Tetrault, Marc-Andre); Therrien, AC (Therrien, Audrey C.); Lamy, ED (Lamy, Etienne Desaulniers); Boisvert, A (Boisvert, Alexandre); Fontaine, R (Fontaine, Rejean); Pratte, JF (Pratte, Jean-Francois)
来源出版物: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE  卷: 62  期: 3  页: 719-726  DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2015.2420795  子辑: 1  出版年: JUN 2015  
摘要: To increase contrast in positron emission tomography (PET) images, researchers are investigating detectors that reach below the nanosecond timing resolution. This allows a tight coincidence window which reduces random coincidence counts in the acquired data, as well as to include time-of-flight information into the reconstruction algorithms. With this goal in mind, single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays have been under study for their excellent timing performances. However, their spurious dark counts can blur the start of PET signals where timing information is the most precise and create false starts in the acquisition system, introducing dead time. To minimize these problems in digital SPAD systems using a single time to digital converter (TDC) per PET channel, dark count discriminator circuits are required to reduce timing errors and increase the triggering efficiency in presence of dark counts. This paper compares the performance of a probabilistic and a novel delay line based dark count discriminator. Simulations of a SPAD array investigate the impact of dark counts on triggering efficiency and coincidence timing. Results show that the probabilistic discriminator provides excellent event recovery with regard to dark counts at the cost of some coincidence timing resolution. On the other hand, the delay line discriminator maintains the peak coincidence timing resolution but does not provide as much efficiency at high dark count rate levels.
入藏号: WOS:000356456100018
地址: [Tetrault, Marc-Andre; Therrien, Audrey C.; Lamy, Etienne Desaulniers; Boisvert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Rejean; Pratte, Jean-Francois] Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Sherbrooke, PQ J1G 0A2, Canada.
通讯作者地址: Tetrault, MA (通讯作者),Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Sherbrooke, PQ J1G 0A2, Canada.
电子邮件地址: Marc-Andre.Tetrault@USherbrooke.ca
ISSN: 0018-9499
eISSN: 1558-1578

第 14 条,共 35 条
标题: A DOI Detector With Crystal Scatter Identification Capability for High Sensitivity and High Spatial Resolution PET Imaging
作者: Gu, Z (Gu, Z.); Prout, DL (Prout, D. L.); Silverman, RW (Silverman, R. W.); Herman, H (Herman, H.); Dooraghi, A (Dooraghi, A.); Chatziioannou, AF (Chatziioannou, A. F.)
来源出版物: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE  卷: 62  期: 3  页: 740-747  DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2015.2408333  子辑: 1  出版年: JUN 2015  
摘要: A new phoswich detector is being developed at the Crump Institute, aiming to provide improvements in sensitivity, and spatial resolution for PET. The detector configuration is comprised of two layers of pixelated scintillator crystal arrays, a glass lightguide and a light detector. The annihilation photon entrance (top) layer is a 48 x 48 array of 1.01 x 1.01 x 7 mm(3) LYSO crystals. The bottom layer is a 32 x 32 array 1.55 x 1.55 x 9 mm(3) BGO crystals. A tapered, multiple-element glass lightguide is used to couple the exit end of the BGO crystal array (52 x 52 mm(2)) to the photosensitive area of the Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube (46 x 46 mm(2)), allowing the creation of flat panel detectors without gaps between the detector modules. Both simulations and measurements were performed to evaluate the characteristics and benefits of the proposed design. The GATE Monte Carlo simulation indicated that the total fraction of the cross layer crystal scatter (CLCS) events in singles detection mode for this detector geometry is 13.2%. The large majority of these CLCS events (10.1% out of 13.2%) deposit most of their energy in a scintillator layer other than the layer of first interaction. Identification of those CLCS events for rejection or correction may lead to improvements in data quality and imaging performance. Physical measurements with the prototype detector showed that the LYSO, BGO and CLCS events were successfully identified using the delayed charge integration (DCI) technique, with more than 95% of the LYSO and BGO crystal elements clearly resolved. The measured peak-to-valley ratios (PVR) in the flood histograms were 3.5 for LYSO and 2.0 for BGO. For LYSO, the energy resolution ranged from 9.7% to 37.0% full width at half maximum (FWHM), with a mean of 13.4 +/- 4.8% For BGO the energy resolution ranged from 16.0% to 33.9% FWHM, with a mean of 18.6 +/- 3.2% In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the proposed detector is feasible and can potentially lead to a high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and DOI PET system.
入藏号: WOS:000356456100021
地址: [Gu, Z.; Prout, D. L.; Silverman, R. W.; Herman, H.; Dooraghi, A.; Chatziioannou, A. F.] Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Crump Inst Mol Imaging, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
通讯作者地址: Gu, Z (通讯作者),Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Crump Inst Mol Imaging, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
电子邮件地址: zhgu@mednet.ucla.edu; archatzi-ioann@mednet.ucla.edu
ISSN: 0018-9499
eISSN: 1558-1578

第 15 条,共 35 条
标题: Real-Time Discrete SPAD Array Readout Architecture for Time of Flight PET
作者: Tetrault, MA (Tetrault, M. -A.); Lamy, ED (Lamy, E. Desaulniers); Boisvert, A (Boisvert, A.); Thibaudeau, C (Thibaudeau, C.); Kanoun, M (Kanoun, M.); Dubois, F (Dubois, F.); Fontaine, R (Fontaine, R.); Pratte, JF (Pratte, J. -F.)
来源出版物: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE  卷: 62  期: 3  页: 1077-1082  DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2015.2409783  子辑: 2  出版年: JUN 2015  
摘要: Single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays have proven themselves as serious candidates for time of flight positron emission tomography (PET). Discrete SPAD readout schemes mitigate the low-noise requirements of analog schemes and offer very fine control over threshold levels and timing pickup strategies. On the other hand, a high optical fill factor is paramount to timing performance in such detectors, and consequently space is limited for closely integrated electronics. Nonetheless, a production, daily used PET scanner must minimize bandwidth usage, data volume, data analysis time and power consumption and therefore requires a real-time readout and data processing architecture as close to the detector as possible. We propose a fully digital, embedded real-time readout architecture for SPAD-based detector. The readout circuit is located directly under the SPAD array instead of within or beside it to overcome the fill factor versus circuit capabilities tradeoff. Since the overall real-time engine provides all the required data processing, the system needs only to send the data required by the PET coincidence engine, significantly reducing the bandwidth requirement. A 3D prototype device was implemented in 2 tiers of 130 nm CMOS from Global Foundry / Tezzaron featuring individual readout for 6 scintillator channels. The timing readout is provided by a first photon discriminator and a 31 ps resolution time to digital converter, while energy readout and event packaging is done in real-time using synchronous logic from a CMOS standard cell library, all fully embedded in the ASIC. The dedicated serial output line supports a sustained rate 2.2 Mcps in PET acquisition mode, or 170 kcps in an oscilloscope mode for offline validation and development.
入藏号: WOS:000356458000031
地址: [Tetrault, M. -A.; Lamy, E. Desaulniers; Boisvert, A.; Kanoun, M.; Dubois, F.; Fontaine, R.; Pratte, J. -F.] Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada. 
[Thibaudeau, C.] Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Radiobiol & Nucl Med, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada.
通讯作者地址: Tetrault, MA (通讯作者),Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada.
电子邮件地址: marc-andre.tetrault@usherbrooke.ca; etienne.desaulniers.lamy@usher-brooke.ca; Alexandre.Boisvert@USherbrooke.ca; Christian.Thibaudeau@USherbrooke.Ca; Frederik.Dubois@USher-brooke.ca; rejean.fontaine@usherbrooke.ca; Jean-Francois.Pratte@USher-brooke.ca
ISSN: 0018-9499
eISSN: 1558-1578

第 16 条,共 35 条
标题: Pulsed Power Active Interrogation of Shielded Fissionable Material
作者: Woolf, RS (Woolf, Richard S.); Phlips, BF (Phlips, Bernard F.); Hutcheson, AL (Hutcheson, Anthony L.); Wulf, EA (Wulf, Eric A.); Zier, JC (Zier, Jacob C.); Jackson, SL (Jackson, Stuart L.); Murphy, DP (Murphy, Donald P.); Commisso, RJ (Commisso, Robert J.); Schumer, JW (Schumer, Joseph W.); Clemett, CD (Clemett, Ceri D.); O'Malley, J (O'Malley, John); Hill, C (Hill, Cassie); Maddock, RC (Maddock, Robert C.); Martin, PN (Martin, Philip N.); Threadgold, JR (Threadgold, James R.)
来源出版物: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE  卷: 62  期: 3  页: 1278-1287  DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2015.2427152  子辑: 3  出版年: JUN 2015  
摘要: We irradiated a depleted uranium (U-238) target with intense, single 50 ns pulses of bremsstrahlung to study the behavior of He-3, BF3, NaI(Tl), and liquid scintillation detectors in a harsh radiological environment. The target was exposed unshielded, and shielded with borated high-density polyethylene, or steel, and delayed gamma-ray and neutron signatures were measured. We found that a high confidence measurement of the delayed emission could be obtained in this environment and show the results from each detector array, for varying amounts of shielding, in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio vs. time and the relationship between the mean of the signal-to-noise ratio vs. areal mass density.
入藏号: WOS:000356459900011
地址: [Woolf, Richard S.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Wulf, Eric A.] US Naval Res Lab, Div Space Sci, Washington, DC 20375 USA. 
[Zier, Jacob C.; Jackson, Stuart L.; Murphy, Donald P.; Commisso, Robert J.; Schumer, Joseph W.] US Naval Res Lab, Div Plasma Phys, Washington, DC 20375 USA. 
[Clemett, Ceri D.; O'Malley, John; Hill, Cassie; Maddock, Robert C.; Martin, Philip N.; Threadgold, James R.] Nucl Secur Sci Grp, Atom Weap Estab, Reading RG7 4PR, Berks, England.
通讯作者地址: Woolf, RS (通讯作者),US Naval Res Lab, Div Space Sci, Washington, DC 20375 USA.
电子邮件地址: richard.woolf@nrl.navy.mil
ISSN: 0018-9499
eISSN: 1558-1578

第 17 条,共 35 条
标题: Energy dispersive CdTe and CdZnTe detectors for spectral clinical T and NDT applications
作者: Barber, WC (Barber, W. C.); Wessel, JC (Wessel, J. C.); Nygard, E (Nygard, E.); Iwanczyk, JS (Iwanczyk, J. S.)
来源出版物: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT  卷: 784  页: 531-537  DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2014.10.079  出版年: JUN 1 2015  
摘要: We are developing room temperature compound semiconductor detectors for applications in energy-resolved high-flux single x-ray photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT), including functional imaging with nanoparticle contrast agents for medical applications and non-destructive testing (NDT) for security applications. Energy-resolved photon-counting can provide reduced patient dose through optimal energy weighting for a particular imaging task in CT, functional contrast enhancement through spectroscopic imaging of metal nanoparticles in CT, and compositional analysis through multiple basis function material decomposition in CT and NDT. These applications produce high input count rates from an x-ray generator delivered to the detector. Therefore, in order to achieve energy-resolved single photon counting in these applications, a high output count rate (OCR) for an energy-dispersive detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) compound semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel provided the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions, and at a sufficiently high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). We have developed high-flux energy-resolved photon-counting x-ray imaging array sensors using pixellated CdTe and CdZnTe semiconductors optimized for clinical CT and security NDT. We have also fabricated high-flux ASICs with a two dimensional (2D) array of inputs for readout from the sensors. The sensors are guard ring free and have a 2D array of pixels and can be tiled in 2D while preserving pixel pitch. The 2D ASICs have four energy bins with a linear energy response across sufficient dynamic range for clinical CT and some NDT applications. The ASICs can also be tiled in 2D and are designed to fit within the active area of the sensors. We have measured several important performance parameters including: the output count rate (OCR) in excess of 20 million counts per second per square mm with a minimum loss of counts due to pulse pile-up, an energy resolution of 7 keV full width at half-maximum (FWHM) across the entire dynamic range, and a noise floor about 20 keV. This is achieved by directly interconnecting the ASIC inputs to the pixels of the CdZnTe sensors incurring very little input capacitance to the ASICs. We present measurements of the performance of the CdTe and CdZnTe sensors including the OCR, FWHM energy resolution, noise floor, as well as the temporal stability and uniformity under the rapidly varying high flux expected in CT and NDT applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
入藏号: WOS:000354592300094
会议名称: 15th Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Applications (SORMA)
会议日期: JUN 09-12, 2014
会议地点: Ann Arbor, MI
会议主办方: Univ Michigan Campus
地址: [Barber, W. C.; Wessel, J. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.] DxRay Inc, Northridge, CA 91324 USA. 
[Barber, W. C.; Wessel, J. C.; Nygard, E.] Interon AS, Asker, Norway.
通讯作者地址: Barber, WC (通讯作者),DxRay Inc, Northridge, CA 91324 USA.
电子邮件地址: william.barber@dxray.com
ISSN: 0168-9002
eISSN: 1872-9576

第 18 条,共 35 条
标题: A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout
作者: Allman, MS (Allman, M. S.); Verma, VB (Verma, V. B.); Stevens, M (Stevens, M.); Gerrits, T (Gerrits, T.); Horansky, RD (Horansky, R. D.); Lita, AE (Lita, A. E.); Marsili, F (Marsili, F.); Beyer, A (Beyer, A.); Shaw, MD (Shaw, M. D.); Kumor, D (Kumor, D.); Mirin, R (Mirin, R.); Nam, SW (Nam, S. W.)
来源出版物: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS  卷: 106  期: 19  文献号: 192601  DOI: 10.1063/1.4921318  出版年: MAY 11 2015  
摘要: We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.
入藏号: WOS:000355008100024
地址: [Allman, M. S.; Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W.] NIST, Boulder, CO 80305 USA. 
[Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.] CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA. 
[Kumor, D.] Purdue Univ, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.
通讯作者地址: Allman, MS (通讯作者),NIST, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 USA.
电子邮件地址: shane.allman@boulder.nist.gov
ISSN: 0003-6951
eISSN: 1077-3118

第 19 条,共 35 条
标题: InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications
作者: Jiang, XD (Jiang, Xudong); Itzler, M (Itzler, Mark); O'Donnell, K (O'Donnell, Kevin); Entwistle, M (Entwistle, Mark); Owens, M (Owens, Mark); Slomkowski, K (Slomkowski, Krystyna); Rangwala, S (Rangwala, Sabbir)
来源出版物: IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS  卷: 21  期: 3  文献号: 3800112  DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2358685  出版年: MAY-JUN 2015  
摘要: To meet the increasing demand from quantum communications and other photon starved applications, we have developed various InP-based single-photon detectors, including discrete single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), negative feedback avalanche diodes (NFADs), and Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GmAPD) arrays. A large quantity of InP SPADs have been fabricated. Out of similar to 1000 devices with a 25-mu m active area diameter, operated under gated mode at temperature of 233 K, with a pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz and pulse width of 1 ns, the average dark count rate and afterpulsing probability are 30 kHz and 8 x 10(-5), respectively. Smaller (16-mu m active area diameter) and larger (40-mu m active area diameter) discrete devices have been fabricated as well, and their performances are presented along with the 25-mu m diameter devices. NFAD devices can operate in free running mode and photon detection efficiency of similar to 10-15% can be achieved without applying any hold-off time externally. When the temperature decreases from 240 to 160 K, the noise equivalent power (NEP) decreases from 1.9 x 10(-16) to 1.8 x 10(-18)WHz(-1/2), with the activation energy being 0.2 eV. The very low NEP at similar to 160 K makes NFAD devices an ideal choice for long distance, entanglement-based quantum key distributions. GmAPD arrays provide an enabling technology for many active optical applications, such as 3-D laser detection and ranging (LADAR) and photon starved optical communications. Both 32 x 32 and 128 x 32 GmAPD arrays have been fabricated with high performance and good uniformity. GmAPD focal plane arrays (FPAs) with framed readout mode have enabled very high-performance flash LADAR systems. GmAPD FPAs with asynchronous readout mode will enable high rate quantum key distributions and other quantum communications applications.
入藏号: WOS:000357641500001
地址: [Jiang, Xudong; Itzler, Mark; O'Donnell, Kevin; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir] Princeton Lightwave Inc, Cranbury, NJ 08512 USA.
通讯作者地址: Jiang, XD (通讯作者),Princeton Lightwave Inc, Cranbury, NJ 08512 USA.
电子邮件地址: xjiang@princetonlightwave.com; mitzler@princetonlightwave.com; kodonnell@princetonlightwave.com; mentwistle@princetonlightwave.com; mowens@princetonlightwave.com; kslomkowski@princetonlightwave.com; srangwala@princetonlightwave.com
ISSN: 1077-260X
eISSN: 1558-4542

第 20 条,共 35 条
标题: High-Speed Quantum Random Number Generation Using CMOS Photon Counting Detectors
作者: Tisa, S (Tisa, Simone); Villa, F (Villa, Federica); Giudice, A (Giudice, Andrea); Simmerle, G (Simmerle, Georg); Zappa, F (Zappa, Franco)
来源出版物: IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS  卷: 21  期: 3  文献号: 6300107  DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2375132  出版年: MAY-JUN 2015  
摘要: Optical quantum random number generators (QRNGs) are a special class of physical random data sources, whose randomness is established on elementary quantum optics processes. We present a QRNG based on a CMOS chip which overcomes the limitations of the commonly used optical QRNG and which achieves a random bit generation rate up to 200 Mb/s. The CMOS chip is based on an array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) and digital counters. We prove the absolute randomness of the generated random data through statistical test suites and even more stringent correlation and bias tests applied to 32 Gbit streams. The QRNG passes all tests; hence, it proves to be one of the fastest and more reliable CMOS optical QRNGs currently available.
入藏号: WOS:000357641700001
地址: [Tisa, Simone; Giudice, Andrea; Simmerle, Georg] Micro Photon Devices Srl, I-39100 Bolzano, Italy. 
[Villa, Federica; Zappa, Franco] Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Biongegneria, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
通讯作者地址: Tisa, S (通讯作者),Micro Photon Devices Srl, I-39100 Bolzano, Italy.
电子邮件地址: simone.tisa@micro-photon-devices.com; federica.villa@polimi.it; andrea.giudice@micro-photon-devices.com; georg.simmerle@micro-photon-devices.com; franco.zappa@polimi.it
ISSN: 1077-260X
eISSN: 1558-4542

第 21 条,共 35 条
标题: Gated Silicon Drift Detector Fabricated from a Low-Cost Silicon Wafer
作者: Matsuura, H (Matsuura, Hideharu); Sakurai, S (Sakurai, Shungo); Oda, Y (Oda, Yuya); Fukushima, S (Fukushima, Shinya); Ishikawa, S (Ishikawa, Shohei); Takeshita, A (Takeshita, Akinobu); Hidaka, A (Hidaka, Atsuki)
来源出版物: SENSORS  卷: 15  期: 5  页: 12022-12033  DOI: 10.3390/s150512022  出版年: MAY 2015  
摘要: Inexpensive high-resolution silicon (Si) X-ray detectors are required for on-site surveys of traces of hazardous elements in food and soil by measuring the energies and counts of X-ray fluorescence photons radially emitted from these elements. Gated silicon drift detectors (GSDDs) are much cheaper to fabricate than commercial silicon drift detectors (SDDs). However, previous GSDDs were fabricated from 10-kcm Si wafers, which are more expensive than 2-kcm Si wafers used in commercial SDDs. To fabricate cheaper portable X-ray fluorescence instruments, we investigate GSDDs formed from 2-kcm Si wafers. The thicknesses of commercial SDDs are up to 0.5 mm, which can detect photons with energies up to 27 keV, whereas we describe GSDDs that can detect photons with energies of up to 35 keV. We simulate the electric potential distributions in GSDDs with Si thicknesses of 0.5 and 1 mm at a single high reverse bias. GSDDs with one gate pattern using any resistivity Si wafer can work well for changing the reverse bias that is inversely proportional to the resistivity of the Si wafer.
入藏号: WOS:000357183400015
地址: [Matsuura, Hideharu; Sakurai, Shungo; Oda, Yuya; Fukushima, Shinya; Ishikawa, Shohei; Takeshita, Akinobu; Hidaka, Atsuki] Osaka Electrocommun Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Neyagawa, Osaka 5728530, Japan.
通讯作者地址: Matsuura, H (通讯作者),Osaka Electrocommun Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, 18-8 Hatsu Cho, Neyagawa, Osaka 5728530, Japan.
电子邮件地址: matsuura@isc.osakac.ac.jp; ee11a045@oecu.jp; ee11a022@oecu.jp; e09071@oecu.jp; mf14a002@oecu.jp; ee11a056@oecu.jp; h-atsuki@mail.osakac.ac.jp
ISSN: 1424-8220

第 22 条,共 35 条
标题: Electromagnetic modeling and resonant detectors and arrays
作者: Choi, KK (Choi, K. K.); Sun, J (Sun, J.); DeCuir, EA (DeCuir, E. A.); Olver, KA (Olver, K. A.); Wijewarnasuriya, P (Wijewarnasuriya, P.)
来源出版物: INFRARED PHYSICS & TECHNOLOGY  卷: 70  页: 153-161  DOI: 10.1016/j.infrared.2014.09.009  出版年: MAY 2015  
摘要: We recently developed a finite element three-dimensional electromagnetic model for quantum efficiency (QE) computation. It is applicable to any arbitrary detector geometry and materials. Using this model, we can accurately account for the open literature experimental results that we have investigated, which include those from GaAs solar cells, GaSb type-II superlattices, and GaAs quantum wells. We applied the model to design a photon trap to increase detector QE. By accumulating and storing incident light in the resonator-QWIP structure, we observed experimental QE as high as 71%. This improvement shows that we are now able to fully determine the optical properties of QWIPs. For example, we can design QWIPs to detect at certain wavelengths with certain bandwidths. To illustrate this capability, we designed QWIPs with its QE spectrum matching well with the transmission spectrum of a medium. We subsequently produced several focal plane arrays according to these designs with 640 x 512 and 1 K x 1 K formats. In this paper, we will compare the modeled QE and the experimental results obtained from single detectors as well as FPAs. Published by Elsevier B.V.
入藏号: WOS:000357234000032
会议名称: 8th International Workshop on Quantum Structure Infrared Photodetectors (QSIP)
会议日期: JUN 29-JUL 03, 2014
会议地点: Santa Fe, NM
地址: [Choi, K. K.; Sun, J.; DeCuir, E. A.; Olver, K. A.; Wijewarnasuriya, P.] US Army, Res Lab, Adelphi, MD 20783 USA.
通讯作者地址: Choi, KK (通讯作者),US Army, Res Lab, 2800 Powder Mill Rd, Adelphi, MD 20783 USA.
电子邮件地址: kwong.k.chol.civ@mail.mil
ISSN: 1350-4495
eISSN: 1879-0275

第 23 条,共 35 条
标题: Correction of complex nonlinear signal response from a pixel array detector
作者: van Driel, TB (van Driel, Tim Brandt); Herrmann, S (Herrmann, Sven); Carini, G (Carini, Gabriella); Nielsen, MM (Nielsen, Martin Meedom); Lemke, HT (Lemke, Henrik Till)
来源出版物: JOURNAL OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION  卷: 22  特刊: SI  页: 584-591  DOI: 10.1107/S1600577515005536  子辑: 3  出版年: MAY 2015  
摘要: The pulsed free-electron laser light sources represent a new challenge to photon area detectors due to the intrinsic spontaneous X-ray photon generation process that makes single-pulse detection necessary. Intensity fluctuations up to 100% between individual pulses lead to high linearity requirements in order to distinguish small signal changes. In real detectors, signal distortions as a function of the intensity distribution on the entire detector can occur. Here a robust method to correct this nonlinear response in an area detector is presented for the case of exposures to similar signals. The method is tested for the case of diffuse scattering from liquids where relevant sub-1% signal changes appear on the same order as artifacts induced by the detector electronics.
入藏号: WOS:000353920300019
地址: [van Driel, Tim Brandt; Herrmann, Sven; Carini, Gabriella; Lemke, Henrik Till] SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Linac Coherent Light Source, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA. 
[van Driel, Tim Brandt; Nielsen, Martin Meedom] Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Phys, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
通讯作者地址: Lemke, HT (通讯作者),SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Linac Coherent Light Source, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.
电子邮件地址: lemke@slac.stanford.edu
ISSN: 0909-0495
eISSN: 1600-5775

第 24 条,共 35 条
标题: A novel and fast way for energy calibrating the Medipix-2 low discrimination threshold
作者: Van Haarlem, Y (Van Haarlem, Y.)
来源出版物: RADIATION MEASUREMENTS  卷: 76  页: 36-43  DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2015.03.010  出版年: MAY 2015  
摘要: The Medipix-2 MXR is a single photon counting imaging detector developed at CERN. It provides 65,536 pixels in a 256 x 256 array, each equipped with low and high energy discriminators and a counter. The low (and high) threshold settings can be used to collect energy-resolved radiographic images. Applications include high-dynamic range, low-noise and material-resolved X-ray imaging. Each pixel has a different electronic gain and offset, so the energy calibration for each pixel needs to be determined separately. The Medipix detector provides only global low and high threshold settings, which are applied to all pixels. However, each pixel has additional 3-bit offset settings for the low and high thresholds. These settings can be used to fine-tune the thresholds for individual pixels and their calibration also needs to be determined. This paper describes a novel and fast method for calibrating the low energy discrimination threshold setting by using X-ray tube transmission spectra through different materials. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
入藏号: WOS:000354344700006
地址: CSIRO, Intelligent Min & Online Anal Theme, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
通讯作者地址: Van Haarlem, Y (通讯作者),CSIRO, Intelligent Min & Online Anal Theme, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
电子邮件地址: yves.vanhaarlem@csiro.au
ISSN: 1350-4487

第 25 条,共 35 条
标题: Effect of loss on multiplexed single-photon sources
作者: Bonneau, D (Bonneau, Damien); Mendoza, GJ (Mendoza, Gabriel J.); O'Brien, JL (O'Brien, Jeremy L.); Thompson, MG (Thompson, Mark G.)
来源出版物: NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS  卷: 17  文献号: 043057  DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/17/4/043057  出版年: APR 28 2015  
摘要: An on-demand single-photon source is a key requirement for scaling many optical quantum technologies. A promising approach to realize an on-demand single-photon source is to multiplex an array of heralded single-photon sources using an active optical switching network. However, the performance of multiplexed sources is degraded by photon loss in the optical components and the non-unit detection efficiency of the heralding detectors. We provide a theoretical description of a general multiplexed single-photon source with lossy components and derive expressions for the output probabilities of single-photon emission and multi-photon contamination. We apply these expressions to three specific multiplexing source architectures and consider their tradeoffs in design and performance. To assess the effect of lossy components on near-and long-term experimental goals, we simulate the multiplexed sources when used for many-photon state generation under various amounts of component loss. We find that with a multiplexed source composed of switches with similar to 0.2-0.4 dB loss and high efficiency number-resolving detectors, a single-photon source capable of efficiently producing 20-40 photon states with low multi-photon contamination is possible, offering the possibility of unlocking new classes of experiments and technologies.
入藏号: WOS:000353942600001
地址: [Bonneau, Damien] Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Ctr Quantum Photon, Bristol BS8 1UB, Avon, England. 
Univ Bristol, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Bristol BS8 1UB, Avon, England.
通讯作者地址: Bonneau, D (通讯作者),Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Ctr Quantum Photon, Merchant Venturers Bldg,Woodland Rd, Bristol BS8 1UB, Avon, England.
电子邮件地址: mark.thompson@bristol.ac.uk
ISSN: 1367-2630

第 26 条,共 35 条
标题: Simulation of 1.5-mm-thick and 15-cm-diameter gated silicon drift X-ray detector operated with a single high-voltage source
作者: Matsuura, H (Matsuura, Hideharu)
来源出版物: JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS  卷: 54  期: 4  文献号: 044301  DOI: 10.7567/JJAP.54.044301  出版年: APR 2015  
摘要: High-resolution silicon X-ray detectors with a large active area are required for effectively detecting traces of hazardous elements in food and soil through the measurement of the energies and counts of X-ray fluorescence photons radially emitted from these elements. The thicknesses and areas of commercial silicon drift detectors (SDDs) are up to 0.5 mm and 1.5 cm(2), respectively. We describe 1.5-mm-thick gated SDDs (GSDDs) that can detect photons with energies up to 50 keV. We simulated the electric potential distributions in GSDDs with a Si thickness of 1.5 mm and areas from 0.18 to 168 cm(2) at a single high reverse bias. The area of a GSDD could be enlarged simply by increasing all the gate widths by the same multiple, and the capacitance of the GSDD remained small and its X-ray count rate remained high. (c) 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics
入藏号: WOS:000354743200035
地址: Osaka Electrocommun Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Neyagawa, Osaka 5728530, Japan.
通讯作者地址: Matsuura, H (通讯作者),Osaka Electrocommun Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Neyagawa, Osaka 5728530, Japan.
电子邮件地址: matsuura@isc.osakac.ac.jp
ISSN: 0021-4922
eISSN: 1347-4065

第 27 条,共 35 条
标题: Geiger mode mapping: A new imaging modality for focused ion microprobes
作者: Yang, CY (Yang, Changyi); Hougaard, CR (Hougaard, Christiaan R.); Bielejec, E (Bielejec, Edward); Caroll, MS (Caroll, Malcolm S.); Jamieson, DN (Jamieson, David N.)
来源出版物: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS  卷: 348  页: 73-78  DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.12.040  出版年:APR 1 2015  
摘要: Geiger mode detectors fabricated in silicon are used to detect incident photons with high sensitivity. They are operated with large internal electric fields so that a single electron-hole pair can trigger an avalanche breakdown which generates a signal in an external circuit. We have applied a modified version of the ion beam induced charge technique in a nuclear microprobe system to investigate the application of Geiger mode detectors to detect discrete ion impacts. Our detectors are fabricated with,an architecture based on the avalanche diode structure and operated with a transient bias voltage that activates the Geiger mode. In this mode avalanche breakdown is triggered by ion impact followed by diffusion of an electron-hole pair into the sensitive volume. The avalanche breakdown is quenched by removal of the transient bias voltage which is synchronized with a beam gate. An alternative operation mode is possible at lower bias voltages where the avalanche process self-quenches and the device exhibits linear charge gain as a consequence. Incorporation of such a device into a silicon substrate potentially allows the exceptional sensitivity of Geiger mode to register an electron-hole pair from sub-10 keV donor atom implants for the deterministic construction of shallow arrays of single atoms in the substrate required for emerging quantum technologies. Our characterization system incorporates a fast electrostatic ion beam switcher gated by the transient device bias, duration 800 ns, with a time delay, duration 500 ns, that allows for both the ion time of flight and the diffusion of the electron-hole pairs in the substrate into the sensitive region of the device following ion impact of a scanned 1 MeV H microbeam. We compare images at the micron scale mapping the response of the device to ion impact operated in both Geiger mode and avalanche (linear) mode for silicon devices engineered with this ultimate-sensitivity detector structure. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
入藏号: WOS:000354140900015
会议名称: 14th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications (ICNMTA) / Workshop on Proton Beam Writing
会议日期: JUL 07-11, 2014
会议地点: Padova, ITALY
地址: [Yang, Changyi; Hougaard, Christiaan R.; Jamieson, David N.] Univ Melbourne, Sch Phys, ARC Ctr Quantum Computat & Commun Technol, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia. 
[Bielejec, Edward; Caroll, Malcolm S.] Sandia Natl Labs, Albuquerque, NM 87185 USA.
通讯作者地址: Jamieson, DN (通讯作者),Univ Melbourne, Sch Phys, ARC Ctr Quantum Computat & Commun Technol, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.
电子邮件地址: djamieson@unimelb.edu.au
ISSN: 0168-583X
eISSN: 1872-9584

第 28 条,共 35 条
标题: Prototype of a front-end readout ASIC designed for the Water Cherenkov Detector Array in LHAASO
作者: Zhao, L (Zhao, L.); Wu, W (Wu, W.); Liu, J (Liu, J.); Liang, Y (Liang, Y.); Qin, J (Qin, J.); Yu, L (Yu, L.); Liu, S (Liu, S.); An, Q (An, Q.)
来源出版物: JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION  卷: 10  文献号: P03015  DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/10/03/P03015  出版年: MAR 2015  
摘要: The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory is in the R&D phase, in which the Water Cherenkov Detector Array is an important part. The signals of Photo-Multiplier Tubes would vary from single photo electron to 4000 photo electrons, and both high precision charge and time measurement is required. To simplify the signal processing chain, the charge-to-time conversion method is employed. A prototype of the front-end readout ASIC is designed and fabricated in Chartered 0.35 m m CMOS technology, which integrates time disctrimination and converts the input charge information to pulse widths. With Time-to-Digital Converters, both time and charge can be digitized at the same time. We have conducted initial tests on this chip, and the results indicate that a time resolution better than 0.5 ns is achieved over the full dynamic range (1 similar to 4000 photo electrons, corresponding to 0.75 similar to 3000 pC with the threshold of 0.188 pC); the charge resolution is better than 1% with large input amplitudes (500 similar to 4000 photo electrons), and remains better than 15% with a 1 photo electron input amplitude, which is beyond the application requirement.
入藏号: WOS:000357944500065
地址: [Zhao, L.; Wu, W.; Liu, J.; Liang, Y.; Qin, J.; Yu, L.; Liu, S.; An, Q.] Univ Sci & Technol China, State Key Lab Particle Detect & Elect, Hefei 230026, Peoples R China. 
[Zhao, L.; Wu, W.; Liu, J.; Liang, Y.; Qin, J.; Yu, L.; Liu, S.; An, Q.] Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Modern Phys, Hefei 230026, Peoples R China.
通讯作者地址: An, Q (通讯作者),Univ Sci & Technol China, State Key Lab Particle Detect & Elect, Jinzhai Rd, Hefei 230026, Peoples R China.
电子邮件地址: anqi@ustc.edu.cn
ISSN: 1748-0221

第 29 条,共 35 条
标题: Plasmonic Structure Integrated Single-Photon Detector Configurations to Improve Absorptance and Polarization Contrast
作者: Csete, M (Csete, Maria); Szekeres, G (Szekeres, Gabor); Szenes, A (Szenes, Andras); Szalai, A (Szalai, Aniko); Szabo, G (Szabo, Gabor)
来源出版物: SENSORS  卷: 15  期: 2  页: 3513-3539  DOI: 10.3390/s150203513  出版年: FEB 2015  
摘要: Configurations capable of maximizing both the absorption component of system detection efficiency and the achievable polarization contrast were determined for 1550 nm polarized light illumination of different plasmonic structure integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) consisting of p = 264 nm and P = 792 nm periodic niobium nitride (NbN) patterns on silica substrate. Global effective NbN absorptance maxima appear in case of p/s-polarized light illumination in S/P-orientation (gamma = 90 degrees/0 degrees azimuthal angle) and the highest polarization contrast is attained in S-orientation of all devices. Common nanophotonical origin of absorptance enhancement is collective resonance on nanocavity gratings with different profiles, which is promoted by coupling between localized modes in quarter-wavelength metal-insulator-metal nanocavities and laterally synchronized Brewster-Zenneck-type surface waves in integrated SNSPDs possessing a three-quarter-wavelength-scaled periodicity. The spectral sensitivity and dispersion characteristics reveal that device design specific optimal configurations exist.
入藏号: WOS:000351992700012
地址: [Csete, Maria; Szekeres, Gabor; Szenes, Andras; Szalai, Aniko; Szabo, Gabor] Univ Szeged, Dept Opt & Quantum Elect, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary. 
[Szalai, Aniko] Univ Szeged, MTA SZTE Photoacust Res Grp, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary.
通讯作者地址: Csete, M (通讯作者),Univ Szeged, Dept Opt & Quantum Elect, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary.
电子邮件地址: mcsete@physx.u-szeged.hu; gszekeres@titan.physx.u-szeged.hu; andraslaszlo.szenes@gmail.com; anikoszalai@titan.physx.u-szeged.hu; gszabo@physx.u-szeged.hu
ISSN: 1424-8220

第 30 条,共 35 条
标题: 100 000 Frames/s 64 x 32 Single-Photon Detector Array for 2-D Imaging and 3-D Ranging
作者: Bronzi, D (Bronzi, Danilo); Villa, F (Villa, Federica); Tisa, S (Tisa, Simone); Tosi, A (Tosi, Alberto); Zappa, F (Zappa, Franco); Durini, D (Durini, Daniel); Weyers, S (Weyers, Sascha); Brockherde, W (Brockherde, Werner)
来源出版物: IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS  卷: 20  期: 6  文献号: 3804310  DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2341562  出版年: NOV-DEC 2014  
摘要: We report on the design and characterization of a multipurpose 64 x 32 CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array. The chip is fabricated in a high-voltage 0.35-mu m CMOS technology and consists of 2048 pixels, each combining a very low noise (100 cps at 5-V excess bias) 30-mu m SPAD, a prompt avalanche sensing circuit, and digital processing electronics. The array not only delivers two-dimensional intensity information through photon counting in either free-running (down to 10-mu s integration time) or time-gated mode, but can also perform smart light demodulation with in-pixel background suppression. The latter feature enables phase-resolved imaging for extracting either three-dimensional depth-resolved images or decay lifetime maps, by measuring the phase shift between a modulated excitation light and the reflected photons. Pixel-level memories enable fully parallel processing and global-shutter readout, preventing motion artifacts (e.g., skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects. The array is able to acquire very fast optical events at high frame-rate (up to 100 000 fps) and at single-photon level. Low-noise SPADs ensure high dynamic range (up to 110 dB at 100 fps) with peak photon detection efficiency of almost 50% at 410 nm. The SPAD imager provides different operating modes, thus, enabling both time-domain applications, like fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, as well as frequency-domain FLIM and lock-in 3-D ranging for automotive vision and lidar.
入藏号: WOS:000357661100001
地址: [Bronzi, Danilo; Villa, Federica; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco] Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, I-20133 Milan, Italy. 
[Tisa, Simone] Micro Photon Device Srl, I-39100 Bolzano, Italy. 
[Durini, Daniel; Weyers, Sascha; Brockherde, Werner] Fraunhofer Inst Microelect Circuits & Syst IMS, D-47057 Duisburg, Germany.
通讯作者地址: Bronzi, D (通讯作者),Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
电子邮件地址: danilo.bronzi@polimi.it
ISSN: 1077-260X
eISSN: 1558-4542

第 31 条,共 35 条
标题: Silicon Photon-Counting Avalanche Diodes for Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy
作者: Michalet, X (Michalet, Xavier); Ingargiola, A (Ingargiola, Antonino); Colyer, RA (Colyer, Ryan A.); Scalia, G (Scalia, Giuseppe); Weiss, S (Weiss, Shimon); Maccagnani, P (Maccagnani, Piera); Gulinatti, A (Gulinatti, Angelo); Rech, I (Rech, Ivan); Ghioni, M (Ghioni, Massimo)
来源出版物: IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS  卷: 20  期: 6  文献号: 3804420  DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2341568  出版年: NOV-DEC 2014  
摘要: Solution-based single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool with applications in cell biology, biochemistry, and biophysics. The basic feature of this technique is to excite and collect light from a very small volume and work in a low concentration regime resulting in rare burst-like events corresponding to the transit of a single molecule. Detecting photon bursts is a challenging task: the small number of emitted photons in each burst calls for high detector sensitivity. Bursts are very brief, requiring detectors with fast response time and capable of sustaining high count rates. Finally, many bursts need to be accumulated to achieve proper statistical accuracy, resulting in long measurement time unless parallelization strategies are implemented to speed up data acquisition. In this paper, we will show that silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) best meet the needs of single-molecule detection. We will review the key SPAD parameters and highlight the issues to be addressed in their design, fabrication, and operation. After surveying the state-of-the-art SPAD technologies, we will describe our recent progress toward increasing the throughput of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in solution using parallel arrays of SPADs. The potential of this approach is illustrated with single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer measurements.
入藏号: WOS:000357662400001
地址: [Michalet, Xavier; Ingargiola, Antonino; Colyer, Ryan A.; Scalia, Giuseppe; Weiss, Shimon] Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Chem & Biochem, Los Angeles, CA 90046 USA. 
[Maccagnani, Piera] Ist Microelettron & Microsistemi, Sez Bologna, I-40129 Bologna, Italy. 
[Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Ghioni, Massimo] Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
通讯作者地址: Michalet, X (通讯作者),Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Chem & Biochem, Los Angeles, CA 90046 USA.
电子邮件地址: michalet@chem.ucla.edu; tritemio@gmail.com; ryan.colyer@cabrini.edu; giuseppe.scalia@unifr.ch; sweiss@chem.ucla.edu; maccagnani@bo.imm.cnr.it; angelo.gulinatti@polimi.it; ivan.rech@polimi.it; massimo.ghioni@polimi.it
ISSN: 1077-260X
eISSN: 1558-4542

第 32 条,共 35 条
标题: CMOS SPADs: Design Issues and Research Challenges for Detectors, Circuits, and Arrays
作者: Palubiak, DP (Palubiak, Darek P.); Deen, MJ (Deen, M. Jamal)
来源出版物: IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS  卷: 20  期: 6  文献号: 6000718  DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2344034  出版年: NOV-DEC 2014  
摘要: Solid-state single photon detectors are playing a significant role in the development of high-performance single-photon imaging systems for fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight positron emission tomography and Raman Spectroscopy applications. The main driving factors are the unparalleled levels of miniaturization and portability, low fabrication costs, and high overall performance resulting from the integration of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) with mixed-signal circuits in deep-submicron (DSM) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. At the heart of such imaging systems is the SPAD, capable of single-photon sensitivity and sub-nanosecond time resolution, and its associated circuitry, which in DSM CMOS, is capable of high-speed, low-power mixed-mode signal processing. In this paper, we review and discuss the most recent developments in DSM CMOS SPAD detectors, circuits and arrays and investigate issues of scalability, miniaturization and performance trade-offs involved in designing SPAD imaging systems. Design considerations, research challenges, and future directions for CMOS SPAD image sensors will be highlighted and addressed.
入藏号: WOS:000357668000001
地址: [Palubiak, Darek P.; Deen, M. Jamal] McMaster Univ, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada. 
[Deen, M. Jamal] Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Elect & Comp Engn, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
通讯作者地址: Palubiak, DP (通讯作者),McMaster Univ, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada.
电子邮件地址: palubid@mcmaster.ca; jamal@mcmaster.ca
ISSN: 1077-260X
eISSN: 1558-4542

第 33 条,共 35 条
标题: 16-Channel Module Based on a Monolithic Array of Single-Photon Detectors and 10-ps Time-to-Digital Converters
作者: Tamborini, D (Tamborini, Davide); Markovic, B (Markovic, Bojan); Villa, F (Villa, Federica); Tosi, A (Tosi, Alberto)
来源出版物: IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS  卷: 20  期: 6  文献号: 3802908  DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2327797  出版年: NOV-DEC 2014  
摘要: We present a compact and high-performance time-correlated single-photon counting detection module, based on a monolithic CMOS chip with an array of 16 channels, each composed by a 20 mu m diameter single-photon avalanche diode and a time-to-digital converter. All 16 channels are independent and provide single-photon sensitivity in the visible and NIR wavelength range, from 350 to 950 nm (with a peak 45% detection efficiency at 450 nm), 10 ps photon-timing resolution, 160 ns full-scale range, better than 70 ps (full-width at half maximum) precision, and a differential non-linearity better than 0.015 LSB [root mean square (rms)], i.e., 150 fs (rms). The module requires just an USB 2.0 link for data-communication to a remote computer and power-supply, and it proves to be the best candidate for a wide variety of multichannel, low-power, compact, photon-counting, and photon-timing applications.
入藏号: WOS:000357662200001
地址: [Tamborini, Davide; Markovic, Bojan; Villa, Federica; Tosi, Alberto] Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
通讯作者地址: Tamborini, D (通讯作者),Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
电子邮件地址: davide.tamborini@polimi.it; markovic@elet.polimi.it; federica.villa@polimi.it; alberto.tosi@polimi.it
ISSN: 1077-260X
eISSN: 1558-4542

第 34 条,共 35 条
标题: A Substrate Isolated CMOS SPAD Enabling Wide Spectral Response and Low Electrical Crosstalk
作者: Veerappan, C (Veerappan, Chockalingam); Charbon, E (Charbon, Edoardo)
来源出版物: IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS  卷: 20  期: 6  文献号: 3801507  DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2318436  出版年: NOV-DEC 2014  
摘要: In this work we present a substrate isolated single photon avalanche diode designed and fabricated in 180 nm CMOS technology. Substrate isolation is ensured by design to enable lower electrical crosstalk and to ease circuit integration. The presented device achieves wide spectral sensitivity enabling greater than 40% photon detection probability from 440 to 620 nm wavelength at 10 V excess bias. For a 12 mu m active diameter, the dark count rate of the device is 17 Hz and 1.45 kHz at 2 and 10 V excess bias, respectively, while the after pulsing probability is less than 0.3% with 300 ns dead time at 10 V excess bias, and timing jitter was 70 ps (full width at half maximum) when using 405 nm wavelength laser.
入藏号: WOS:000357659400001
地址: [Veerappan, Chockalingam; Charbon, Edoardo] Delft Univ Technol, NL-2629 HS Delft, Netherlands.
通讯作者地址: Charbon, E (通讯作者),Delft Univ Technol, NL-2629 HS Delft, Netherlands.
电子邮件地址: c.veerappan@tudelft.nl; e.charbon@tudelft.nl
ISSN: 1077-260X
eISSN: 1558-4542

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标题: A Single-Photon Avalanche Camera for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy and Correlation Spectroscopy
作者: Vitali, M (Vitali, Marco); Bronzi, D (Bronzi, Danilo); Krmpot, AJ (Krmpot, Aleksandar J.); Nikolic, SN (Nikolic, Stanko N.); Schmitt, FJ (Schmitt, Franz-Josef); Junghans, C (Junghans, Cornelia); Tisa, S (Tisa, Simone); Friedrich, T (Friedrich, Thomas); Vukojevic, V (Vukojevic, Vladana); Terenius, L (Terenius, Lars); Zappa, F (Zappa, Franco); Rigler, R (Rigler, Rudolf)
来源出版物: IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS  卷: 20  期: 6  文献号: 3804010  DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2333238  出版年: NOV-DEC 2014  
摘要: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is commonly used to observe molecules of biological relevance in their native environment, the live cell, and study their spatial distribution and interactions nondestructively. CLSM can be easily extended to measure the lifetime of the excited state, the concentration and the diffusion properties of fluorescently labeled molecules, using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), respectively, in order to provide information about the local environment and the kinetics of molecular interaction in live cells. However, these parameters cannot be measured simultaneously using conventional CLSM due to damaging effects that are associated with strong illumination, including phototoxicity, photobleaching, and saturation of the fluorescence signal. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new camera consisting of 1024 single-photon avalanche diodes that is optimized for multifocal microscopy, FLIM and FCS. We show proof-of-principle measurements of fluorescence intensity distribution and lifetime of the enhanced green fluorescent protein expressed in live cells and measurement of quantum dot diffusion in solution by FCS using the same detector.
入藏号: WOS:000355325900001
地址: [Vitali, Marco; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Junghans, Cornelia; Friedrich, Thomas] Berlin Inst Technol, Dept Chem, D-10623 Berlin, Germany. 
[Bronzi, Danilo; Zappa, Franco] Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron & Informaz, I-20133 Milan, Italy. 
[Tisa, Simone] Micro Photon Device Srl, I-39100 Bolzano, Italy. 
[Krmpot, Aleksandar J.; Nikolic, Stanko N.] Univ Belgrade, Inst Phys, Belgrade 11080, Serbia. 
[Vukojevic, Vladana; Terenius, Lars] Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden. 
[Rigler, Rudolf] Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
通讯作者地址: Vitali, M (通讯作者),Omicron Energy Solut GmbH, D-12099 Berlin, Germany.
电子邮件地址: marco.vitali@omicron.at; danilo.bronzi@elet.polimi.it; krmpot@ipb.ac.rs; stankon@ipb.ac.rs; schmitt@physik.tu-berlin.de; cornelia.junghans@tu-berlin.de; stisa@micro-photon-devices.com; friedrich@chem.tu-berlin.de; Vladana.Vukojevic@ki.se; Lars.Terenius@ki.se; franco.zappa@polimi.it; Rudolf.Rigler@ki.se
ISSN: 1077-260X
eISSN: 1558-4542